(Last Updated On: April 15, 2021)

It is not that they can’s a climb, rather the ground squirrel loves to stay on the ground and can jump, run, and roam here and there. Ground squirrel is members of the squirrel family of rats (Sciuridae), which are usually on the ground or on the ground rather than on the tree.

There are as many as 62 species of Ground squirrel which are typically long-bodied terrestrial rodents.

An interesting fact is that, out of biological need, the ground squirrel has to gnaw more and more in order to keep the front teeth filed down as a natural phenomenon.


This term is often used for medium-sized ground squirrels, as the larger ones are more commonly known as marmot, according to the genus ”marmota” or prairie dogs, while the smaller and less bushy-legged squirrel is known as the chipmunk. These interesting names are popular in order to distinguish one species from another.

Together they form the Marmot tribe consisting of squirrels, marmotini.


There are several close similarities between a golden-mantled ground squirrel and a chipmunk on steroids. People frequently make mistake and mix up both species.

On the back both species have black stripes running down as well as downright brazen in their attempts to get food from the hikers and picnickers. The difference is not finished here. They have distinctive differences in body size too.

Whereas the size of the chipmunk is about 8 inches long with a bodyweight of around 2 ounces, the golden-mantled ground squirrel has a 9 to 12 inches long body with 4 to 14 ounces weight.

The back part of the squirrel is brownish gray, where one white stripe is bordered distinctively by black stripes that are running down each side of the body.

The stripes don’t extend up to the face of the squirrel. In order to clean the brightly colored fur all around the body, the squirrel frequently rolls in the dust as well as preens with its claws. By this, they are able to keep their body clean.

The Ground squirrels are usually active during the day and take rest at night.

They have soft colorful fur, short legs, slender nose, strong claws, sound shaped body, small rounded ears, small black eyes, and a short or moderately long wagging tail.


The Ground squirrel is especially famous for its tendency to rise on its feet whenever it feels in danger near it, or when it is seen on tall grass.

This behavior helps them to identify the danger from a far away so that they get enough time to run away.

Upon seeing any predator or danger, the Ground squirrel then flakes his paw at the base of his chest and sends a screaming call to alert other family members of the victim’s presence.

Chipmunks of the Tammius genus frequently spend time on trees. In other aspects, usually close to the squirrels, they are sometimes considered as their own (Tamimini) tribe.

Ground squirrel is highly variable in size and habits, but most are able to be markedly raised on their back legs and fully erect with the prolonged body.


Most marmotini are rather short-legged and large squirrels. Up to 8 kg (18 lbs) or more, certain marmots are the heaviest squirrels.


The habitats of the ground squirrel are vast. Considering the region and environment the squirrel lives in open areas, including rocky outcrops, grounds, pastures, and very few wooded mountain gates, for example.

A ground squirrel doesn’t use any others burrow and digs its own burrow. The depth and length of the burrow can be up to 100 feet.

There will be an entrance at a safe and suitable place, preferably near a log, stone, wood, or boulder. The home range of the ground squirrel can be up to one to two acres.


Ground squirrel is much more gregarious than other squirrels, and many live in colonies with complex social structures.

Ground squirrel

Feeding and Hibernation

The ground squirrel climbs the trees in order to search for food. In order to carry food from afar, they pack seeds and fruit in their cheek pouches and later on store the food in burrows.

In order to confuse the food thieves, the squirrels pretend to hide food in the burrows.

During winter the squirrels hibernate. The ground squirrels use their collected food in early spring when seeds and fruit are scarce in nature.


Though they are silent most of the time, the ground squirrels can sound louder. Sensing any danger, threat, and fear it chirps and squeals as an alarm.

Usually, the squirrels are calm and quiet, but maybe aggressively growls when fighting with other ground squirrels for any reason, including controlling territory, partner, and food.

Ground squirrel Diet

Ground squirrel is omnivorous and eats various fruits, seeds, dandelions, plantain, nuts, carrots, apples, sunflower seeds, clover, garden veggies, peanuts, peanut butter, corn, squash, zucchini, pumpkin, pecans, pistachios, grapes, strawberries, cookies, as well as snacks well as insects, fungi, forbs, small vertebrates, carrion, eggs, and other small animals. They are known to eat rats and rats a few times the size.

Body-color and texture

The ground squirrel species has a lot of colors varies. One species of ground squirrel has one color whereas another species has other different colors.

The colors can be gray, tawny, or pale brown to olive, reddish, as well as very dark brown in some cases.

Moreover, there are a few other species with solid-colored. However, the ground squirrels feature a common body, coat, and pattern characteristic.

The common colors and textures are dappling in place, lines of spots, from white to brownish pale black stripes, bright reddish glowing brown cheeks, as well as yellowish-red mantle with combined stripes over the head, neck, and shoulders.

The underparts of the ground squirrels are distinctively white, shades of gray, tones of buff, as well as brown.

In some species of ground squirrel, individuals are partially or completely black, or melanistic.

The fur of the ground squirrels ranges in coat and texture from harsh and thin to soft and dense as well as woolly, in many cases.

This sort of diversification of colors makes the species different from other mammals.


Late March to May is the appropriate time for breeding when both males and females come out of hibernation.

The squirrels have a gestation period of 28 days. 4-5 naked and blind kids are born in the litter and stay in the burrows.

After three to six weeks the infants become stable and get ready to head out on their own in the late summer.


Life and activities of the ground squirrels are not safe and sound. There are a lot of enemies and predators lurking to catch and kill them.

A glimpse of Significant Predators

American badgers (Taxidea taxus)
weasels (Mustela)
rattlesnakes (Crotalus)
red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis)
golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)
coyotes (Canis latrans)
domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
domestic cats (Felis silvestris)
bobcats (Lynx rufus)
mountain lions (Puma concolor)
rattlesnakes (Crotalus)

Due to these predators, ground squirrels always need to be alert and careful in order to get out of unwanted danger and continue their generation successfully.

Ecosystem Roles

By hunting insects for food, the ground squirrel play a role in regulating some insect populations. Burrows, they make as habitat help agronomy to some extent.

Burrows created by the squirrel can be helpful for other rodents and reptiles as their habitats. By eating squirrels, predators can survive.

Sources [1], [2], [3], [4]

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